Here we have provided Indian Civilization and Culture Question Answer. Indian Civilization and Culture Question Answer will help you understand the chapter better and will be helpful in your exam preparation.
Bihar Board Class 12th English Book Solution Chapter 1 Indian Civilization and Culture
B.1. 1.Complete the following sentences on the basis of what you have studied:
- India’s glory is that it
- The charge against India is that
- We dare not change what
- Our ancestors set a limit to our indulgences because
- Our forefathers did not invent machinery because
- remains immovable
- her people are so uncivilized , ignorant and stolid
- we have tested and found true on the anvil of experience.
- more we indulge in our passions, the more lunbridled they become
- if we set our heart on those things we would become slaves and lose our moral fiber.
B.1.2. Answer the following questions briefly:
1. How is Indian civilization different from European civilization?
Ans:- A civilization is a mode of conduct for the man that guides us to the path of duty. The people of Europe learned their lessons from the writings of the people of Rome or Greece and imagined that they would not make the same mistakes that those people have done. While in India people believe in only things which they have tested and found true on an anvil of experience and that belief can’t be changed by anyone, any person’s advice.
2. Why does Gandhi say that ‘mind is a restless bird’? What makes the mind restless?
Ans:- Gandhiji said the mind is a restless bird because the more it gets, the more it wants. The desire to get everything makes the mind restless.
3. Why did our ancestors dissuade us from luxuries and pleasures? Did they do the right thing?
Ans:- our ancestors dissuade us from luxuries and please cause, the rich often seem to be unhappy. They did the right thing because a happy society will eventually produce positive energy.
4. Why, according to Gandhi, have we stuck with the same kind of plough as existed thousands of years ago? Should we do the same thing even today?
Ans:- we have the same kind of plough as existed thousands of years ago cause there was no life – corroding competition, also we have the same kind of cottage which were in former times. Everyone has to do their own occupation at the regular wedge. There was no competition and the goal was self-satisfaction.
5. How did our ancestors view large cities? Why were they satisfied with small villages?
Ans:- our ancestors view larger cities as traps, and people will not be happy in them. There would be gangs of thieves, robbers, prostitution and poor men would be robbed by rich men. They were satisfied in their village because there will be no such things and everyone will be happy.
6. How did our ancestors enjoy true ‘Home Rule’?
Ans:- The constitution and court were there but in their own way, within the bounds and the justice was tolerably fair. The common people lived independently and followed their agricultural occupation. So they truly enjoyed home rule.
B. 2. Answer the following questions briefly
1. What, according to the author, is modern civilization?
Ans:- Modern civilization is the worship of material, the worship of the brute within us. It is complete materialism and modern civilization is nothing if it does not think at every step of the Triumph of material civilization.
2. What did the author convey to the countrymen about dealing with modern civilization?
Ans:- The author conveys to countrymen that dealing with modern civilization is to shun away ( keep away ) from it at all costs.
3. What is distinguished characteristic of modern civilization?
Ans:- The distinguishing characteristic of modern civilization is that it is an indefinite multiplicity of human wants. It arises from the want of living faith in the future state and also in divinity.
4. The author perceived danger from modern inventions. How?
Ans:- The author perceives danger from modern inventions because he believes that they can’t be resisted once started, but the victory of man lies in resistance. He also believes that people are in danger of bartering away the permanent good for momentary pleasure.
5. What does the author prefer to materialism?
Ans:- By materialism author means that the great discovery which has been made in science, also the modern machinery, weapons, etc refers to materialism.
6. What does our civilization depend upon?
Ans:- According to the author our civilization does not depend on multiplying our wishes and desires but upon restructuring it.
7. What is civilization in the real sense of the term?
Ans:- Civilization in the real sense of the term consists not in the multiplication, but in the deliberate and voluntary restriction of wants. This alone increases contentment, real happiness and capacity for service.
C. 1. Long Questions Answer
1.‘I believe that the civilization India has evolved is not to be beaten in to be in the world.’ What does Gandhi mean by this statement? Do you subscribe to his view?
Ans:- Ans:- Gandhi ji means to say that the civilization which India has made all these years can’t be beaten by anyone in the world i.e. it can’t get destroyed and manipulated. He supports his views by giving examples of other countries like Rome, Greece, etc they all lost their seeds and roots. Japan has been westernized but coming to us, India despite having been ruled by various emperors of various civilizations, has maintained its roots. He also supports his statement by stating that our civilization is based on what we have tested and found true on the anvil of experience, also the people dare not change those beliefs.
2. We notice that mind is a restless bird, the more it gets the more it wants, and still remains unsatisfied. Pick out other metaphors used in this lesson. How do these metaphors help Gandhi ji in persuading the readers?
Ans:- Gandhiji meant by the statement ” mind is a restless bird, the more it gets the more it wants, and still remains unsatisfied ” that the more we are involved in our passion, the more uncontrolled we become. The state of wanting more and more keeps the mind unsatisfied, and when the mind is in a rush a person can’t achieve happiness. He supports his statement by giving a reference to his ancestors who were against indulgences. He further says that happiness is largely a mental condition, as when the mind will be at rest and satisfied with what it has, then there will be positivity and that will automatically lead to happiness.
3. A man is not necessarily happy because he is rich or unhappy because he is poor. The rich are often seen to be unhappy the poor are happy. What according to Gandhi defines happiness?
Ans:- According to the author, neither wealth nor poverty makes a person happy or miserable. Contentment is where true happiness is found. The wealthy would stop at nothing to get what they wanted. Gandhi, however, holds that giving in to our desires just makes them more irrational. Hence, despite their greatest efforts, individuals are unable to satiate their wants and fall short of realizing them. They are depressed as a result. The impoverished, on the other hand, live contented lives and do not increase their demands. Only by exercising mental restraint can a man find contentment. We can see that happiness is, in fact, a state of mind in this way.
4. Why did our ancestors feel satisfied with small villages? Did they do the right thing? Will it be wise today to follow our ancestors in this connection? Give your own view.
Ans:- our ancestors were satisfied with small villages because according to them in villages people have no life – corroding competition among them. They just followed their own occupation and traders charged a regular wedge. There was no machinery and people used their hands and feet, which they think a person should do only things which he can do with hand and feet . Unlike large cities which were a trap and everyone had a certain competition among them. There were gangs of thieves, robbers, and prostitution. Poor men were also robbed by rich men.
Speaking of today, I don’t think it will be wise to follow the thinking our ancestors used to have, because competition is prevalent all over the world, and lack of competition will eventually make a person weak and allow others to dominate over them. Today agriculture is not popular as a source of income. Everyone has to do some other work in order to survive so eventually they will have to move to cities.
5. Discuss the negative features of western civilization?
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Ans:- Western evolved a civilization that suited its climate and surrounding popularly known as Western civilization. It is the multiplicity of what human wants. The modern or western insatiableness arises really from the want of living faith in the future state and therefore also in divinity. It is the worship of the brute in us. It does not think at the very step of the triumph of material civilization. Modern or western civilization is also based on desiring and achieving everything that one can think of. It is not based upon that one should restrict one’s desires and focus on getting satisfaction and happiness in what one has.
6. What is the essential difference between Indian civilization and western civilization? How is our civilization superior to western civilization?
Ans:- The essential difference between the modern or western civilization and the eastern or Indian civilization is that the west has evolved into a civilization suited to its climate and surroundings, similarly Indian civilization is suited to its own condition. Western civilization is an indefinite multiplicity of human wants while the Indian civilization is an imperative restriction upon, and a strict regulating of, these wants. While the west has made a remarkable growth in materialism and science, similarly India has made a remarkable growth in spiritualism.
Our civilization is superior to the western as our civilization is based on focusing on restricting our desires and putting a restriction on our thoughts, getting happiness and satisfaction on what we have, that will eventually achieve happiness and exceed our desires and not putting a restriction on them will never lead to satisfaction and happiness and the goal of a civilization should be happy because eventually, a positive environment will be led to positive future.
7. A certain degree of physical harmony and comfort is necessary but above a certain level it becomes a hindrance instead of a help. Elaborate.
Ans:- A certain degree of physical harmony and comfort is necessary but above a certain level it becomes a hindrance instead of help the author said the above statements because he believes that machines are great inventions, they have made us reach all those things which we can never think of, it has given us physical comfort and made the world faster, but there should be a limit in it because the lack of physical interaction in the things will make one lazy and once the human becomes addicted to the comfort, he will desire for more comfort which is not good for the society and the civilization.
C. 3. COMPOSITION
Write a paragraph in about 100 words on each of the following:
a. The real dignity of man lies not in what he has but in what he is.
” The real dignity of a man lies not in what he has but what he is ” the above words are simple to tell but have a whole lot of meaning. The whole world consists of various prosperous people who have a lot of wealth but are not happy and are in the desire of getting more and their desire becomes limitless. This whole race has created the people to run day and night to achieve their desire even if it is the basic one. In this whole process, one forgot to take a break and thank the universe for the things that he has achieved to date.
This makes the one greedy, and selfish, cruel and jealous seeing others’ success and then thinking about how to get others down and make his turn in the race. The current scenario of the world will nowhere lead to a humanitarian society. The world has a lot of examples of such people, but the one who is honored and remembered and has won the hearts of many people is always remembered.
The dignity of the person is not inborn, it’s a choice that he will make in his life. Choosing to be kind and generous to the world is not everyone’s cup of tea. Setting examples to the world, to society, and winning hearts, and getting honored are what a man has achieved.
b. The crown and glory of life is character.
The future of society is a person with good character. The character of a person describes a lot about a person, his personality, his nature, and his behavior. Building an image in society is difficult to obtain and more difficult to maintain. A person whose character is good is highly valued in society and is valued like a king. Therefore the crown of a person is his character. It’s often said that if you have to look if a person is good or bad you have to go ask the opinion of the person surrounding him. The opinion symbolizes the character of the person.
D.1. Dictionary Use
Ex. 1. Correct the spelling of the following words:
disuaded, ocupation, votries, imorality, unadultereted, matarialism, beleif, madning, engrev, harmoney
- Disuaded – Dissuaded
- ocupation – Occupation
- Votries – Votaries
- Imorality – Immorality
- unadultereted – Unadulterated
- matarialism – Materialism
- Beleif – Belief
- Madning – Maddening
- engrev – Engrave
- Harmoney – Harmony
Ex. 2. Look up a dictionary and write two meanings of the following words — the one in which it is used in the lesson and the other which is more common
reason thinking wants ruin copy
- As per lesson- a cause, explanation, or justification for an action or event
- As per common usage- a statement given to explain a belief or an act; a motive or cause
- As per lesson- the process of considering or reasoning about something
- As per common usage- to reflect on a matter/ thought
- As per lesson- have a desire to possess or do (something); wish for
- As per common usage- a desire for something
- As per lesson-downfall / destruction
- As per common usage- reduce (a building or place) to a state of decay, collapse
- As per lesson- imitate the style or behavior of
- As per common usage- a thing to be made similar or identical to another
Read carefully the following sentence taken from the lesson:
Each followed his own occupation…
In the above sentence the word ‘occupation’, which is an abstract noun, is derived from the verb ‘occupy’. Now, derive abstract nouns from the verbs given below and use them (abstract nouns) in sentences of your own:
convert perform define please educate observe
- Convert – Conversion – The process of conversion of water to ice requires water to be frozen.
- Perform – Performance – The annual day is lined up with splendid performances by students.
- Define – Definition – The Gujarati definition of civilization is good to conduct.
- Please – Pleasure – One must not give up long-term goals for momentary pleasures.
- Educate – Education – In rural India, girls still have lesser access to education as compared to boys.
- Observe – Observation – The patient is critical and has been kept under the observation of doctors.
Ex 1. Find from the lesson words the meanings of which have been given in Column A. The last part of each word is given in Column B:
|someone related who lived long time ago||…………. tor|
|of one’s homeland||…………nous|
|being a burden to||…………ance|
|to spread ideas, beliefs, etc||…………..ate|
|exchange goods, property etc||…………..ter|
|someone related who lived long time ago||ancestor|
|of one’s homeland||indigenous|
|Being a burden to||hindrance|
|To spread ideas, beliefs, etc||propagate|
|Exchange goods, property, etc||barter|
Ex. 2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words (gerunds) from the given list:
living thinking writing bartering maddening
- (i) Pragya’s ………………. is not very legible.
- (ii) The police could not control the……………..crowd.
- (iii) We are in danger of…………….away the permanent good for a momentary pleasure.
- (iv) Gandhi always believed in simple…………………
- (v) Amandeep’s……………was quite logical.
- (i) Pragya’s writing is not very legible.
- (ii) The police could not control the maddening crowd.
- (iii) We are in danger of bartering away the permanent good for a momentary pleasure.
- (iv) Gandhi always believed in simple living.
- (v) Amandeep’s thinking was quite logical.
D. 4. Phrases
Ex.1. Read the lesson carefully and find out the sentences in which the following phrases have been used. Then use these phrases in sentences of your own:
satisfy with be suited to believe in cling to in vain
- Satisfy with – It is important to keep ourselves satisfied with what we have while we work hard for our dreams.
- Be suited to – Western civilization is best suited to people of the West.
- Believe in – A person who believes in God is considered spiritual.
- Cling to – It is not advisable to cling to one’s mistakes
- In vain – Losing a competition doesn’t signify that all the efforts went in vain.
Read the following sentence from the lesson carefully:
We are dazzled by the material progress that western science has made.
In the above sentence ‘dazzled’ and ‘made’ are past participles of the verbs ‘dazzle’ and ‘make’ respectively.
Ex. 1. Complete the sentences given below by using the appropriate forms of the verbs given in brackets:
- Indian Civilization has…………..it alive till now. (keep)
- I see here ancient India still…………..(live)
- We have……………..many things from western literature. (borrow)
- We have been……………..west for long. (copy)
- Arya did………………so. (speak)
- Nehru had………………….so many letters to his daughter from jail. (write)
- Indian Civilization has kept it alive till now. (keep)
- I see here ancient India still alive. (live)
- We have borrowed many things from western literature. (borrow)
- We have been copying west since long. (copy)
- Arya did say so. (speak)
- Nehru had written so many letters to his daughter from jail. (write)
Ex.2. Study the following sentence from the lesson
We notice that the mind is a restless bird, the more it gets the more it wants….
Mark the use of double comparative in the above sentence. Look at the examples given in the table:
The + comparative (1st) The + comparative (2nd)
The harder you work, the better you achieve
The more she earns The more she wants
Form ten sentences of your own choice on this pattern
- The more you study, the more you learn.
- The more, the merrier.
- The more practice you do, the better you become.
- The less you worry about others, the less they will bother you.
- The less I worry, the more relaxed I feel.
- The older we get, the wiser we become.
- The faster you drive, the quicker you will get there.
- There are more and more people coming to this vacation spot.
- The hotter the weather, the more water we should drink.
- The more you practice, the more you learn.
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