Minerals and Energy Resource Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes

What is a Mineral?

  • A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid substance with a definite chemical composition and a crystalline structure.
  • Minerals are typically formed through geological processes and can be found in various rock formations.
  • They are an essential part of the Earth’s natural resources and are used in various applications, including construction, manufacturing, and medicine.

Mode of Occurrence of Minerals

Minerals can occur in various ways, including:

  • In veins or lodes: These are long, thin deposits of minerals that are typically found in cracks or fractures in the rock.
  • Massive deposits: These are large deposits of minerals that form in a single, solid mass.
  • As disseminated deposits: These are small, scattered deposits of minerals that are found throughout a rock formation.
  • As nodules or concretions: These are rounded or irregularly shaped deposits of minerals that form within a rock or soil.
  • As layers or beds: These are thin layers of minerals that are found within a rock formation.
  • As replacement deposits: These are minerals that have replaced other minerals within a rock formation.
  • As weathering products: These are minerals that have been formed through the process of weathering, in which rocks are broken down and transformed by the action of wind, water, and other natural forces.

Classification of Minerals

Class 10 geography chapter 5 notes

Ferrous minerals

  • Ferrous minerals are minerals that contain iron.
  • Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26.
  • Ferrous minerals are typically mined from the Earth’s crust and then processed to extract the iron, which is then used to manufacture various products
  • Some common ferrous minerals include hematite, magnetite, and pyrite.

Iron Ore:

  1. Iron ore is a type of rock that contains a high concentration of iron.
  2. It is an important raw material for the production of steel, which is used in a wide range of applications, including construction, transportation, and manufacturing.
  3. Iron ore is typically found in the form of hematite or magnetite and is usually mined from the Earth’s crust.
  4. Hematite is a reddish-brown mineral that is the primary source of iron ore. It is found in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks and is often mined for its iron content.


  1. Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferromanganese alloys.
  2. Manganese is a chemical element with the symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
  3. It is a metal that is commonly found in the Earth’s crust and is an essential element for many forms of life.

Non-ferrous minerals

  • Non-ferrous minerals are minerals that do not contain iron. They are typically lighter in color than ferrous minerals and are not magnetic.
  • Non-ferrous minerals are an important source of a wide range of metals, including aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, and others.
  • These metals are used in a variety of applications, including construction, transportation, electronics, and manufacturing.
  • Some common non-ferrous minerals include bauxite, which is the primary ore of aluminum; chalcopyrite, which is the primary ore of copper; galena, which is the primary ore of lead; and sphalerite, which is the primary ore of zinc.

Non – Metallic Minerals

  • Non-metallic minerals are minerals that do not contain metallic elements.
  • They are typically found in the earth’s crust and are used for a variety of purposes, including the production of construction materials, chemicals, and consumer products.
  • Non-metallic minerals are generally not as valuable as metallic minerals, which are minerals that contain metallic elements and are typically more valuable because they are used in the production of various products, including jewelry, electronics, and machinery.
  • Examples of non-metallic minerals include clay, salt, gypsum, limestone, diamond, graphite, and asbestos.

Rock Minerals

Rocks are made up of one or more minerals, which are naturally occurring inorganic substances that have a specific chemical composition and crystal structure.

Some common rock minerals include:

  1. Mica: Mica is a group of minerals that are characterized by their ability to split into thin, flexible sheets. It is found in a variety of rocks, including granite and schist.
  2. Calcite: Calcite is a common mineral that is composed of calcium carbonate. It is found in a variety of rocks, including limestone and marble.
  3. Pyroxene: Pyroxene is a group of silicate minerals that are characterized by their ability to form long, thin crystals. It is found in a variety of rocks, including basalt and gabbro.

Conservation of minerals

Conservation of minerals refers to the responsible use and management of mineral resources to ensure that they are available for future generations. This includes efforts to minimize the environmental impact of mineral extraction and processing, as well as efforts to ensure that mineral resources are used efficiently and sustainably.

There are several key strategies that can be used to conserve  minerals:

  1. Recycling: Recycling mineral resources can help to conserve them by reducing the need to extract new materials from the earth.
  2. Improved mining practices: Advances in mining technology and practices can help to reduce the environmental impact of mineral extraction, as well as improve efficiency and reduce waste.
  3. Alternative materials: Using alternative materials that have a lower environmental impact or are more abundant can help to conserve minerals.
  4. Education and awareness: Raising awareness about the importance of mineral conservation can help to encourage more responsible use and management of these resources.
  5. Government policies: Governments can play a key role in mineral conservation by implementing policies that encourage sustainable use and management of mineral resources.

Energy Resources

Energy resources are sources of energy that can be used to generate electricity or power machines and devices. Energy is required for all activities

Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity.

Energy resources can be classified as

  1. conventional and: – (firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity both hydel and thermal).
  2. non-conventional sources: – solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas and atomic energy.

Conventional Source of Energy

  • Conventional sources of energy refer to energy sources that have been widely used for a long time and are well-established in society.
  • These energy sources are commonly used to generate electricity, heat homes and buildings, and power transportation.


  1.  In India, coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel. It provides a substantial part of the nation’s energy needs.
  2. Coal is formed due the compression of plant material over millions of years. Coal, therefore, is found in a variety of forms depending on the degrees of compression and the depth and time of burial.
  3. Decaying plants in swamps produce peat. Which has a low carbon and high moisture contents and low heating capacity.
  4. Lignite is a low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content.
  5. In India coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages, namely Gondwana, a little over 200 million years in age and in tertiary deposits which are only about 55 million years old.
  6. The major resources of Gondwana coal, which are metallurgical coal, are located in Damodar valley (West Bengal).


  1. Petroleum or mineral oil is the next major energy source in India after coal.
  2. Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age.
  3. Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks. Gas, being lighter usually occurs above the oil.
  4. It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries.
  5.  It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries.
  6. Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India.

Natural Gas

  1. Natural Gas is found with petroleum deposits and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface.
  2. It can be used as a domestic and industrial fuel.
  3. It can be used as a domestic and industrial fuel. It is used as fuel in power sector to generate electricity, for heating purpose in industries, as raw material in chemical, petrochemical and fertilizer industries, as transport fuel and as cooking fuel.
  4. India’s major gas reserves are found in the Mumbai High and allied fields along the west coast which are supplemented by finds in the Cambay basin.
  5. Overall, India’s gas infrastructure has expanded over ten times from 1,700 KM to 18,500 KM of cross-country pipelines and is expected to soon reach over 34, 000 KM as Gas Grid by linking all gas sources and consuming markets across the country including North Eastern states.

Nuclear Energy or Atomic Energy

  1. It is obtained by altering the structure of atoms.
  2. When such an alteration is made, much energy is released in the form of heat and this is used to generate electric power.
  3. Uranium and Thorium, which are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan are used for generating atomic or nuclear power. The Monazite sands of Kerala is also rich in Thorium

Solar Energy

  1. Solar energy is a form of renewable energy that is generated by converting sunlight into electricity.
  2. Solar energy has a number of benefits, including the fact that it is a clean and renewable source of energy that does not produce any greenhouse gases or other pollutants.
  3.  It is also widely available, as the sun shines on most parts of the world. Solar energy has become increasingly popular in recent years due to concerns about climate change and the need to reduce reliance on fossil fuels.
  4. India is a tropical country. It has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy.
  5. Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity
  6. Solar energy is fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas. Some big solar power plants are being established in different parts of India


  1. Biogas is produced through the process of anaerobic digestion, which occurs when bacteria break down organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
  2. This process produces a gas that can be captured and used as a source of energy.
  3. Biogas can be produced from a variety of organic materials, including agricultural waste, food waste, and animal manure
  4. Biogas is a type of renewable energy that is produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter.
  5. It is typically composed of methane and carbon dioxide, and can be used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuel.

Conservation of energy

Conservation of energy resources is the practice of using energy in a responsible and efficient manner to reduce the consumption of non-renewable resources and minimize the negative impacts of energy use on the environment. This can involve using energy-efficient appliances and technologies, designing buildings and transportation systems to be more efficient, and adopting practices that reduce energy consumption.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes – CBSE Geography Chapter 6
Chapter 6 Political Parties Class 10 Notes

There are several ways that individuals and organizations can conserve energy resources:

  1. Use energy-efficient appliances and equipment: Energy-efficient appliances and equipment use less energy to perform the same tasks as traditional models. Look for the Energy Star label when shopping for appliances.
  2. Turn off appliances and electronics when not in use: Electronics and appliances that are left on standby mode can still use a significant amount of energy. Remember to turn them off when not in use.
  3. Use energy-efficient lighting: LED bulbs are more energy-efficient than traditional incandescent bulbs and can last for many years.
  4. Use public transportation, carpool, or walk or bike instead of driving alone: Transportation is a significant contributor to energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Consider alternative modes of transportation that use less energy.
  5. Insulate and seal your home: Proper insulation and sealing can help keep your home warm in the winter and cool in the summer, reducing the need for heating and air conditioning.
  6. Plant trees or install shading devices: Trees and shading devices can block the sun’s rays, reducing the need for air conditioning in the summer.

Tagged with: Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes | Minerals and Energy Resource Notes

Class: Subject: ,

Have any doubt

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *