Resources and Development Class 10 Notes- Best Revision

Introduction to Resources and Development Class 10 Notes

A resource is defined as anything available in our environment that can be used to meet our needs. It must be technologically feasible, economically viable, and culturally acceptable. Only then can it be called a ‘Resource.’ Minerals, forests, and fossil fuels are a few examples.

Classification of Resources

Resources are classified as follows: Based on origin (a) Biological and abiotic.
(b) According to exhaustibility: renewable and non-renewable.
(c) Ownership types: Individual (Personal), Community, National, and International.

Based on Origin

Biotic Resources: Resources that we get from the biosphere. They are living forms of resources like Fruits, Fish, Humans, etc.

Abiotic Resources: They are non-living forms of life resources from the biosphere. example: Soil, water, Rocks & Minerals.

Based on Exhausbility

Renewable or replenishable resources are those that can be renewed or reproduced through physical, chemical, or mechanical processes, such as water, wildlife, forests, solar energy, wind energy, and so on.

Non-renewable resources are those that, once depleted, cannot be replenished. Minerals, fossil fuels, and so on are formed over a long geological time period, i.e., millions of years.

Based on Ownership

Individual resources: Items owned by individuals, such as land and a home.
Community Owned Resources: Resources that are available to all members of the community, such as parks and playgrounds.
National resources are those that belong to the nation, such as roads and railways, whereas international resources are those that no single country can use, such as oceanic waters beyond 200 kilometres.

Apart from these main categories, a few categories of resources are mentioned in Resources and development class 10 notes. These resources are based on development:

Potential resources: Resources discovered in a region but not used, such as solar energy in Rajasthan or wind energy in Gujarat; Stock resources: Resources available but inaccessible due to a lack of appropriate technology, such as a lack of technical know-how to use hydrogen and oxygen as energy sources; and
Reserve: A stock subset. Can be used for future needs, such as dam water and forest resources.

Planning of Resources

Resource planning is a daunting task that starts with recognizing and identifying the resources across several regions. This can only be achieved by mapping, conducting surveys as well as qualitative & quantitative estimation of these resources. Once the identification is done, one needs to come up with the working module including technological aids and skills. the last step mentioned in this topic of resources and development class 10 notes includes matching the objective with the implementation of resource development plans with that of the national development agenda.

Sustainable economic development means that “development should occur without harming the environment, and development in the present should not compromise the needs of future generations.”

Land Resource

The land is an extremely valuable natural resource. It provides a habitat for natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activity, transportation, and communication systems. India has a diverse range of relief features, including mountains, plateaus, plains, and islands.

The following uses are made of land resources: Forests and uncultivated land a) Barren and wasteland b) Non-agricultural use of land, Vacant land, India’s Net Sown Area, and Other undeveloped lands (excluding fallow land).

The land’s use is determined by several factors as Topography, climate, and soil types are examples of physical factors. Human factors also play a role including population density, technological capability, culture and traditions, and so on. As per resources and development class 10 notes in India, the following land types dominate plains (43%), mountains (30%), and plateaus (27%).
Land Degradation: The continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate conservation and management measures.

resources and development class 10 notes


Afforestation, proper grazing management to control overgrazing, planting of plant shelter belts, stabilisation of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes, control of mining activities, avoidance of over-irrigation and overuse of fertilisers and pesticides are all measures to address the problem of land degradation.

Class 10 syllabus topics are well covered in these notes offered by ReadAxis. Use the notes to score well in your exams. Let us move ahead with the next topic which is spoil erosion.

Soil erosion & Types

It is the denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down. Soil erosion is caused by two factors: (a) human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing construction, mining with a defective fanning method, and so on; and (b) natural forces such as wind, glaciers, and water flow.

Erosion types include: (a) gully erosion. Running water carves deep channels known as gullies through the clayey soils. This results in bad land, which is known as ravines in the Chambal basin.
(b)Sheet erosion- Sheet erosion occurs when the topsoil is washed away over a large area.

Soil as a Resource

The most important and lengthy portion of Resources and development class 10 notes is the soil resource. The most important renewable natural resource is soil. It serves as a medium for plant growth and is home to a variety of living organisms on Earth.

It takes millions of years to form soil to a depth of a few centimetres. Various natural forces, such as temperature changes, the actions of running water, wind, and glaciers, the activities of decomposers, and so on, all contribute to the formation of soil.
Soil formation is influenced by parent rock or bedrock, climate, vegetation, and other forms of life, as well as time.
The chemical and organic changes that occur in the soil play an important role. Organic humus and inorganic materials are also found in soil.

Types of Soils mentioned as per Resources and Development Class 10 notes

Alluvial Soil

  • Alluvial soil covers the entire northern plains.
  • The alluvial soil is made up of different proportions of sand, silt, and clay. Soil particles appear to be larger as we move inland toward river valleys, whereas soils appear to be coarser on the upper side of the river valley.
  • Alluvial soil is deposited by three major Himalayan river systems: the Indus, Ganga, and the Brahmaputra.
  • It can also be found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, and the eastern coastal plains, specifically in the deltas of the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri rivers.
  • Alluvial soils are classified into three types based on their age:
  • Bangar (Old Alluvial): The Bangar soil contains more Kanker nodules than the Khadar soil.
  • Khadar (New Alluvial): It is more fertile and has finer particles than the Bangar.
  • Alluvial soils are exceptionally fertile. These soils are rich in potash, phosphoric acid, and lime, making them ideal for growing sugarcane, paddy, wheat, and other cereal and pulse crops.

Black Soil

  • Also known as regur soils. It is also known as black cotton soil and is ideal for growing cotton mentioned in the resources and development class 10 notes. Found in Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh plateaus, as well as the Godavari and Krishna valleys.
  • As mentioned in the resources and development class 10 notes, This soil type is common in the Deccan trap (Basalt) region. It is made up of lava flows and is spread across the northwest Deccan plateau. The soil extends southeast along the Godavari and Krishna valleys and covers the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh.
  • Made from extremely fine, clayey material. This type of soil has an excellent ability to retain moisture. Calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash, and lime are all abundant. His soil is dark in color and is also referred to as regur soil. The formation of black soil is influenced by climatic conditions as well as the parent rock material.
  • The black soils are composed of extremely fine, clayey material and are well-known for their ability to retain moisture.
  • Black soil is high in nutrients, including calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash, and lime.
  • During the rainy season, such soil poses a challenge for cultivation as it requires complete tilling before or after the first shower of the monsoon period as this spoil tends to become sticky upon absorbing water. Tilling help to spread water evenly onto the soil then only it will be able to produce good crops.

Red and yellow soils

Found in low rainfall areas of the eastern and southern Deccan plateau. Also found in Odisha, Chhattisgarh, the southern Ganga plain, and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats. Iron diffusion in crystalline and metamorphic rocks causes a reddish coloration.

Laterite Soil

  • Laterite soil forms in tropical and subtropical climates with alternate wet and dry seasons.
  • This soil is the result of heavy rain’s intense leaching.
  • Lateritic soils are naturally acidic with a pH level of 6.0 as per resources and development class 10 notes and deficient in plant nutrients. This soil type is mostly found in the southern states, the Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, Odisha, some parts of West Bengal, and the north-eastern regions.
  • The soil supports deciduous and evergreen forests but is deficient in humus.
  • This soil is extremely beneficial for growing tea and coffee.

Arid Soil

  • Rajasthan’s western regions are home to this species. These soils become cultivable after proper irrigation. Because of the dry climate and high temperatures, there is a lack of humus and moisture. The salt content is extremely high, and common salt is produced by evaporating water.
  • What is mentioned in the resources and development class 10 notes Arid soils range in color from red to brown.
  • This soil has a sandy texture and is saline in nature. Some areas have a high salt content, and common salt is obtained by evaporating water.
  • Arid soil is deficient in humus and moisture.
  • Kankar occupies the lower horizons of the soil due to the increasing calcium content downwards. Water infiltration is limited by the formation of Kankar layers in the bottom horizons.

Forest Soil

  • The very topic of resources and development Class 10 notes covers the soil type from the hilly areas. These soils can be found in hilly and mountainous terrain.
  • The soil texture in the valley sides is loamy and silty, while the upper slopes are coarse-grained.
  • These soils are acidic and have low humus content in the snow-covered areas of the Himalayas. The soil on the river terraces and alluvial fans is rich in nutrients. The feature varies depending on where you are. The valley sides are loamy and silty, while the upper slopes are coarse grained. Soil is fertile in the lower valleys, particularly on river terraces and alluvial fans.


Resources and Development class 10 notes of Geography enable us to investigate and think critically and creatively about the complexities of places, as well as different perspectives and feelings about them. Geography is studied through inquiry, which necessitates the development of effective questions. Fieldwork and outdoor education are critical components of geography education.

It is equally important to study from the exam point of view. Besides one should know the physical features of surrounding areas such as the state and the country they are living in. The study of this subject thus becomes helpful in the overall development of students.

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