Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes – CBSE Geography Chapter 6

Manufacturing industries class 10 notes: Manufacturing is the large-scale creation of products from raw materials. The workers who are employed in the manufacturing process are secondary to the production itself, which is the primary activity. The manufacturing industry includes everything, from bakeries to steel mills. The manufacturing industries class 10 notes by Readaxis give a thorough overview of this industry that supports the national economy.

CBSE manufacturing industries class 10 notes

Importance of Manufacturing

Due to the following factors, the manufacturing sector is regarded as the foundation of development:

  • The manufacturing sector contributes to the modernization of agriculture, the foundation of our economy.
  • Due to the growth of secondary and tertiary industries, manufacturing industries also lessen the significant reliance on agricultural revenue.
  • Industrial growth contributes to the eradication of poverty and unemployment.
  • Exporting produced items helps to increase trade and commerce, which contributes to raising desperately needed foreign currency.
  • A nation that has a lot of manufacturing operations prospers.

Industrial Location

Industrial locations are influenced by the availability of:

  • Raw material
  • Labour
  • Capital
  • Power
  • Market
  • Government policies

Wherever all the elements of an industrial location are either present or can be arranged at a reduced cost, manufacturing activity tends to locate. The industry market relationship is depicted in the image below.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Notes

Agro-based Industries

Industries including those for cotton, jute, silk, woolen fabrics, sugar, and edible oil all rely on agricultural raw materials. Let’s learn more about each of them individually.

Textile Industry

  • In India, the textile sector accounts for 14% of industrial production.
  • In India, the textiles sector directly employs 35 million people.
  • This industry is the second largest in terms of employment creation, behind agriculture.
  • About 24.6% of the foreign exchange is earned through it.
  • The textile industry makes up 4% of the overall GDP.
  • The only industry in the nation that is fully integrated along the value chain and self-sufficient is this one.

Cotton Textiles

  • In Mumbai, the first productive cotton textile factory was founded in 1854.
  • To help weavers find work, Mahatma Gandhi placed emphasis on spinning yarn and wearing khadi.
  • The cotton-growing region of Maharashtra and Gujarat was the center of the early cotton textile industry.
  • Its localization was aided by the presence of a market, a port, transportation infrastructure, labor, and a humid environment.

Jute Textiles

  • The majority of jute items and raw jute are produced in India.
  • In 1859, a jute mill was built in Rishra, a town close to Kolkata.
  • After Bangladesh, it ranks second in jute exports.
  • The jute mills survived the 1947 Indian-Bangladesh split, but three-fourths of the jute-producing land was transferred to Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan).
  • In West Bengal, jute manufacturing is centered near the Hugli river.

Sugar Industry

  • India is the world’s second-largest producer of sugar, although it tops the list for gur and khandsari.
  • Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat all have sugar mills.
  • The mills have a tendency to concentrate in the southern and western states, particularly in Maharashtra, in recent years.
  • This is due to the increased sucrose concentration of the cane grown here and the longer crushing season made possible by the cooler environment.

Mineral-based Industries

Mineral-based businesses are those that rely on metals and minerals as their primary raw materials. Let’s talk about some of these sectors in more detail.

Iron and Steel Industry

  • Steel and iron Since all other industries—heavy, medium, and light—rely on it for their machinery, the industry is the fundamental industry.
  • With 111 million tonnes produced, India came in second globally in the production of crude steel in 2019.
  • The major producer of sponge iron in India. But compared to the 229.3 kg global average, its per capita consumption was only 74.3 kg annually in 2019.

Aluminum Smelting

  • It is India’s second-largest metallurgical industry.
  • The primary raw material for this sector is bauxite, a massive rock with a dark reddish color.
  • When combined with other metals, aluminum becomes robust, malleable, corrosion-resistant, and a good heat conductor.
  • It is employed in the production of cables, kitchenware, and aircraft.
  • In a variety of industries, aluminum has become more and more common as a substitute for steel, copper, zinc, and lead.

Chemical Industries

  • There are both large and small production facilities in the chemical sector.
  • Both the organic and inorganic industries saw rapid growth. Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash, and caustic soda are examples of inorganic compounds.
  • Petrochemical compounds, which are used to make synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dyes, medications, and pharmaceutical goods, are an example of organic chemicals.

Fertilizer Industry

  • The manufacturing of complex fertilizers, which combine nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K), as well as phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP), is the main focus of the fertilizer industry (K).
  • The third, or potash, is wholly imported because there are no domestic sources of potassium compounds in any form that can be used for commercial purposes.
  • Kerala, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and Punjab produce half of the fertilizer produced worldwide.

Cement Industry

  • For construction projects including constructing homes, factories, bridges, highways, airports, dams, and other commercial buildings, cement is a necessity.
  • Bulky, heavy raw materials including limestone, silica, and gypsum are needed for this sector.
  • Chennai’s first cement plant opened its doors in 1904.
  • After India gained its freedom, the industry grew rapidly.

Automobile Industry

  • Automobiles offer a speedy means of moving both persons and commodities.
  • Following the liberalization, the market was encouraged by the introduction of fresh, modern models.
  • Around Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, etc., the industry is situated.

Information Technology and Electronics Industry

  • Transistors, television, telephones, cellular telecommunications, phone exchanges, radar, computers, and numerous more pieces of telecommunications equipment are all products of the electronic industry.
  • India’s capital of electronics is now Bengaluru. The cities of Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Pune, Delhi, Kolkata, Lucknow, and Coimbatore are also significant hubs for electronic goods.

Also, check –
Class 10 Social Science Notes
Class 10 Science Notes

Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

Industries are involved in four types of pollution:

  • Air
  • Water
  • Land
  • Noise

Control of Environmental Degradation

Here are some strategies for reducing industrial pollution:

  • Minimizing water use through reuse and recycling.
  • Capturing rainwater to satisfy water needs.
  • Preparing hot water and effluents for release before dumping them into ponds and rivers.
  • By adding fabric filters, scrubbers, inertial separators, and electrostatic precipitators to factory smokestacks, particulate matter in the air can be minimized.
  • Gas or oil can be used in factories instead of coal to reduce smoke.
  • It is possible to redesign machinery to make it more energy-efficient and quieter.


One of the most crucial chapters for passing the board exams is manufacturing industries of class 10 so here we bring manufacturing industries class 10 notes. For quick and concise review, students preparing for the board exam opt for last-minute revision notes of manufacturing industries class 10 notes. Readaxis is aware of the struggles its students face and offers brief, simple-to-understand manufacturing industries class 10 notes that will aid students in their academic endeavors.

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