kings and chronicles class 12 Notes History Chapter 9


Kings and Chronicles have been important chapters from the very beginning. In this chapter, we are going to discuss everything about the Mughals in detail. we will also have a sight on the text like Akbar Nama and Babar Nama. These kings and chronicles class 12 notes are very important for exams. We have covered all of the points in kings and chronicles class 12 notes. so, in this blog kings caste and class 12 notes, we will discuss everything in detail.

Kings and chronicles class 12 notes key points


The dynasty of the Mughal Empire considered themselves genuine rulers of a large diverse population. Whether this vast vision was defined by actual political conditions and remained important. As a way of transmitting the fanciful view through the writing of dynastic histories, the Mughal rulers appointed court historians to write the details of their accomplishments. These detailed tasks recorded the events of the ruler’s time, further, the writers collected a great quantity of information from the areas of the subcontinent and helped the rulers to govern the kingdom well.

The Mughals and Empire

  • Mughals did not want to link with their descent-Mongols, They considered themselves Timurids. . Babur set himself at Kabul and pushed to the Indian subcontinent in 1526. His son Humayun could not rule over the sub-continent for long. Jalaluddin Akbar (1556-1605) is considered the greatest Mughal ruler. He expanded, consolidated, and made his empire the strongest and richest of his time. Political coordination and relationships were shaped, and status and graded were also defined.
  • The political system was planned by the Mughals. It was based on the mixing of military power and rational policy to reconcile the different traditions.

Mughal chronicles

  • Mughal chronicles were written by the courtiers. The histories were written specially focused on the events associated with rulers, royal family, courts and nobles, and war administrative arrangements.
  • Chronicles were written in Persian. Persian was grown as court language writings North Indian languages such as Hindavi and other regions were also in use in the Persian Babur composed poetry and his memories in Persian. Akbar made Persian the language of the Mughal court.
  • Akbarnama was written and Babur’s memories were translated into Persian. The Mahabharata and the Ramayana were also translated into Persian by Mughal emperors.

The making of manuscripts

  • In Mughal India, all books were manuscripts in kings and chronicles class 12 notes. Their production was done at the imperial Kitabkhana. All collection of manuscripts related to the emperor was kept in Kitabkhana. A large number of people were engaged in performing different tasks. The calligraphers were assigned to make copies of the texts and gilders were to embellish the pages. Painters are used to adorning or design scenes from the text.
  • People who were engaged in the production of manuscripts got the familiarity as they were titled and awarded by the state. Akbar liked the Nastaliq style of calligraphy
  • The Painted Image Painters played an important role in the production of Mughal manuscripts. Paintings or pictures enhance the beauty of any book. Picture possessed special powers of communicating ideas about the powers of king and kingdom that words were unable to do so.
  • The Islamic prohibition of the description of human beings is cherished in the Quran as well as the hands. It gave an account of the incident from the life of the Prophet Muhammad


The Akbar Nama and The Badshah Nama banana and Badshahnama are famous manuscripts. They contained about 150 full pages. The writer of Akbar Nama, Abul Fazl was grown pat Agra. He was a scholar of Arabic, Persian, Greek philosophy, and Sufism. He resisted the WP news of the conservative Ulama. Akbar was impressed by Abul Fazl and his wits. He worked on the Akbar Nama for 13 years. It has three volumes. The first two are chronicles. The third book is the Ain-i-Akbari. It described Akbar’s reign in the traditional diachronic sense of recording politically important


Abdul Hamid Lahori who was the pupil of Abul Fazl wrote Badshah Nama. Shah Jahan recruited him to write a history of his empire. Badshah Nama had three volume (daftar). Every volume consisted of information as of ten lunar years. Lahori wrote the first two volumes comprising the first 20 years of Shah Jahan’s rule. Wazir Sadullah Khan revised these volumes. Due to old age, Lahori could not write the third volume. It was written by historian Waris Sir William Jones and founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal. It undertook the work of editing. printing and translation of different Indian manuscripts.

The Ideal Kingdom

a) A divine light

Court historians tried to prove with much evidence that Mughal emperors got power directly from God. One of the traditional stories was narrated by them. It was a story of Mongol Queen Alanqua who was impregnated by a ray of sunshine when she was resting in her tent. Her child carried the divine light and this light was passed from generation to generation Abul Fazl marked the highest place of Mughal kingship in the order of objects that got light from God. He was motivated by an Iranian Sufi Shihabuddin Sahrawardi. According to the idea, the divine light was transferred to the king who used to be a source of spiritual guidance for his subjects. From the 17th century onwards, Mughal artists began to portray kings wearing the halo: The halo was the symbol of divine light. The painters saw and observed the European paintings of Christ and the virgin Mary.

b) A unifying force

Mughal empire was dealt by Mughal chronicles. The empire consisted of various ethnic and religious communities like Hindus, Jainas, Zoroastrians and Muslims. Emperor stood above all the groups as the source of all peace and stability. Emperor used to mediate among them and ensured that peace and justice could prevail in the empire. The idea of Sulh-i-Kul was motivated by the unification and peace among all classes and Facial and religious communities. All religions and schools of thought in Sulh-i-kul had the freedom of expression. They were expected that they did not undermine the authority of the state or fight among themselves.

Capitals and Courts

  • The heart of the Mughal Empire was the capital city. Always court was assembled there. Mughals used to change the capital during 16th-17th centuries.
  • Babur captured Lodhi, the Capital of Agra. In 1560 Akbar constructed a Red Fort in Agra. In 1570 new capital was decided to develop at Fatehpur Sikri, Dargah of Shaikh. Salim Chishti is situated. It was constructed by Akbar.
  • Lahore became the capital city of the Mughal Empire in 1585 to keep close vigil and watch at the frontier for 13 years. Mughal emperor Shah Jahan had a passion for buildings. The court, army, and household transferred from Agra to Shahjahanabad (Delhi) in 1648 as the new imperial capital.

The Mughal Court

  • The central point of activities and special occasions of the Mughal court was the emperor, the throne, or the Takht. It gave physical form to the function of the supreme ruler as the Buland Darwaza, Fatehpur.
  • ‘axis Mundi. The place of all courtiers was fixed by the emperor himself as he sat on the throne no one was allowed to change or move his position or to leave without permission. If the violation was noticed punishment was given on the spot. The forms of greeting to the emperor pointed out the individual’s status in the hierand Deeper adoration represented higher status. The highest form of submission was sada complete prostration. These were replaced with Chahar taslim and zaminbos under the reign of Shah Jahan.

local judges or qazis.

  • At the court (faint-i-Jakab) a reserve force was kept which was to be posted to a province or for a military campaign. There were abided to appear two times a day to show obedience to the emperor at the public listener’s hall.

Information and empire

  • Mughal administration kept accurate and detailed records. The corps of the court were inspected by Mir Bakshi. He put all the records and applications in the court as well as imperial orders.
  • The Akhbar had all types of information like attendance at the court, grant of offices and cities, diplomatic mission, and gifts which they got important officials documents and news reports traveled across various regions of the Mughal empire by imperial post. It was round-the-clock relays of foot runners (Pathmark) They carried the papers which were rolled up in the bamboo barrels. The emperor used to get reports from distant provincial capitals within a few days. The emperor was linked by a very quick information loop for the public news.

Beyond the centre: provincial administration

  • The governor (subadar) was the head of the provincial administration. He reported to the emperor directly. Each sub was divided into the sarkars. The sarkar overlapped with the jurisdiction of faujdar. He had heavy cavalry and musketeers.
  • The local administration was set up at the pargana (sub-district). Even pargata are controlled by the qanungo, the Chaudhari, and the qazi.
  • Each department of administration managed large support including accountants clerks, messengers, auditors, and other functionaries. They were skilled in technical fields and functioned as per standardized rules and procedures.


In these kings and chronicles class 12 notes we first discussed the rule and structure of the Mughals. Then we understand the political and economic conditions of that period in brief. kings and chronicles class 12 notes are made according to the curriculum of CBSE. These kings and chronicles class 12 notes are very important according to exams. you will easily find a long question in board exams from these kings and chronicles class 12 notes. So if you like this blog, kings and chronicles class 12 notes then please share it with your friend so that they can also reach good content.

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