Hey folks! Are you having difficulty understanding the term Resistivity? If yes, then you are at the exact right place because after going through the content you’ll have no doubt left in resistivity Class 10th.
We will start with defining the term Electrical Resistivity. Then, we will study Resistivity (class 10) and will derive a formula to find the resistance of an element. Finally, we will discuss the variety of factors on which the resistivity of an element depends.
Electrical resistivity is one of the key parameters for any material used in electrical circuits, electronic components, etc. The resistivity does not depend on the length or thickness of the material but depends on the nature of the substance and its temperature.
SI unit = ohm-meter (Ω-m)
Define Resistivity Class 10th
Resistivity is defined as the electrical resistance offered by a conductor of unit length and unit cross-sectional area at a specific temperature.
Resistance of any conductors is directly proportional to the length (L) of that conductor and is inversely proportional to the area of cross-sectional (A) of the conductor. The SI unit of resistivity is the same as electrical resistivity, that is, ohm-meters (Ω-m).
Let the length of the conductor be ‘L’ and ‘A’ be the cross-sectional area. Then, the expression of resistance ‘R’ of the conductor is given by:
Where ρ = resistivity of the conductor.
The general formula to determine the resistivity of any conductor is given by:
Where R = Resistance
The SI unit of resistance (R) is called ohm (Ω).
We know, that for a given conductor having a specified length (L) and area of intersection (A), the resistance ‘R’ is directly proportional to its resistivity ‘p’.
So, if we change the material conductor to one whose resistivity is two times, then the resistance will also become two times. And if change the material of a conductor to one whose resistivity is three times, then the resistance will become three times.
Factors On Which Resistivity Depends:
Resistivity is a trademark property of a component (i.e, very important).
It depends upon:
- Nature of material
- Physical conditions, like temperature
Based on the resistivity of the material, different materials can be categorized into
- Conductors – Materials that have a very low resistivity and allow the current to pass through them easily are called conductors. (Example- copper).
- Insulators – Materials that have a very high resistivity and do not allow the current to pass through them easily are called insulators. (Example- plastic).
There are some materials whose resistivity lies between conductors and insulators. They are called alloys.
Alloys are made up of one or more than one metal. (Example- Nichrome) Alloys have various properties dues to which they are used as heating elements in various appliances.
The resistivity of some elements are given in the table below:
|Material||Resistivity (Ω m)|
|Conductors||Silver||1.60 * 10-8|
|Copper||1.62 * 10-8|
|Aluminium||2.63 * 10-8|
|Tungesten||5.20 * 10-8|
|Nickel||6.84 * 10-8|
|Iron||10.0 * 10-8|
|Chromium||12.9 * 10-8|
|Mercury||94.0 * 10-8|
|Manganese||1.86 * 10-6|
(alloy of Cu and Ni)
|49 * 10-6|
(alloy of Cu , Mn and Ni)
|44 * 10-6|
(alloy of Ni , Cr , Mn and Fe)
|100 * 10-6|
|Insulators||Glass||1010 to 1014|
|Hard rubber||1013 to 1016|
|Ebonite||1015 to 1017|
|Diamond||1012 to 1013|
Note– Resistivity an element is the measure of the resistance of a given size of a specific material to electrical conduction. Resistivity may also be referred to as the specific electrical resistance, although these terms are less widely used. The resistivity is a parameter that allows us to compare how different materials allow or resist current flow through them.
Some basic questions are as follows:
Answer The Following Questions:-
What is resistivity class 10th?
Ans. Resistivity is defined as the electrical resistance of a conductor of unit cross-sectional area and unit length.
What do you mean by resistivity?
Ans. Resistivity is defined as the electrical resistance of a conductor of unit cross-sectional area and unit length. A characteristic property of each and every material, resistivity is very useful in comparing various materials based on their ability to conduct electric currents.
What is the SI unit of resistivity?
Ans. S.I unit of Resistivity is the ohm.
Related Post:- CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS CLASS 10th Notes – ReadAxis
So, this was all about Resistivity. I hope that now you are all clear with the resistivity topic and have no doubt left. Resistivity is a very important topic from the class 10th board exam point of view, so please go through the article again if you still have some doubts.
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