The Rise of Nationalism in Europe – Class 10 history chapter 1 notes
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe was not the product of a single event but rather a chain of events. The rise of nationalism in Europe began in the 18th century and peaked in the 19th when it extended to the majority of the continent’s nations.
- He is a French painter who debuted a group of works in 1848.
- He imagined the universe of social and democratic republics of his aspirations.
- The world’s inhabitants are divided into separate nations in Sorrieu’s utopian worldview. Their national attire and flags serve as identifiers.
- USA and Switzerland are at the front of the parade, followed by France and Germany. Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary, and Russia follow Germany in that order.
The French Revolution and the idea of the Nation
- Nationalism first emerged during the French Revolution in 1789.
- The French revolutionaries did a lot to foster a sense of community identity:
- Innovative concepts like La Partie and Le citoyen
- A new French flag is being created.
- Election of the National Assembly, which is also given the new name of National Assembly.
- The integrated administrative system.
- Internal duties and customs are abolished.
- It was decided to use uniform weights and measurements.
- French was becoming more widely spoken.
The idea of the Nation
- France is seeing a rise in nationalism.
- The introduction of many policies and practices gave the French people a sense of national identity.
- Monarchy is abolished, a republic is established, and a new congress is formed.
- Napoleon’s ascent and his reforms. Revolutionaries assist other Europeans in becoming a nation.
The Making of Nationalism in Europe
- It was possible to partition Germany, Italy, and Switzerland into kingdoms, duchies, and cantons; each of these divisions had its own independent rulers.
- Many language usages.
- Middle-class growth
- English industrialization, the rise of the working class, and liberalism.
- Both new conservation after 1815 and conventional institution preservation.
- Following Napoleon’s defeat, conservatism is the governing philosophy in Europe. Conservative governments tended to be despotic. At that time, revolutionaries struggled for liberty and freedom.
- Mazzini’s Young Europe and Young Italy, for instance.
- Eliminating all privileges based on birth, creating equality before the law, and safeguarding the right to property were the first significant changes.
- There were fewer administrative divisions.
- Peasants were released from serfdom and manorial dues after the abolition of the feudal system (abuse of manorial lords).
- Guild limitations were lifted in towns.
- Systems for transportation and communication were enhanced.
- Newfound freedom was embraced by workers, peasants, artisans, and new company owners.
- The realization that uniform regulations, standardized weights and measures, and a unified national currency would expedite the movement and exchange of products and capital from one region to another was shared by businesspeople and small-scale producers of goods in particular.
New Middle Class
- In terms of numbers, aristocrats dominated both socially and politically.
- The vast majority of people were peasants.
- A new socio-economic class known as the working class has arisen in England since industrialization.
- It featured businesspeople, industrialists, artisans, and so on.
- Men who owned property were only given the ability to vote or be elected.
- All women and men without property were prohibited from exercising any political rights.
- It comes from the Latin word “root liber,” which means “to be free.”
- Liberal nationalism was maintained in opposition to the loss of priestly privilege and authoritarianism.
A New Conservatism After 1815
- Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria were major European powers in 1815 after defeating Napoleon.
- They used to get together in Vienna to draught the Vienna Treaty, an agreement that governed all of Europe.
- According to this agreement:
- The Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
- France lost all of its possessions during the Napoleonic wars.
- Napoleon created 39 unaltered states for the German Confederation.
- To stop France from growing, borders were built along its border.
- 1807 birthplace of Genoa.
- Was a member of the carbonate secret society.
- Young Europe in Berne and Young Italy in Marseilles are two secret groups he founded.
- The primary objective was to make Italy a republic.
The Age of Revolution: 1830-1848
- In July 1830, the Bourbon kings were deposed in order to establish a constitutional monarchy.
- Greece, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire, was battling for freedom.
- In the Treaty of Constantinople, which was signed in 1832, Greece proclaimed an independent country.
- The key area of concentration was the feeling of the nation.
- Johan Gottfried, a German philosopher, found popular culture through music, dancing, and folk poetry.
- More people were present than there were jobs.
- There is widespread pauperism throughout the nation as a result of rising food prices and poor harvests.
- Silesia weavers rebelled against contractors in 1845.
- 1848 saw the election of the Frankfurt parliament. In St. Paul Church, 831 elected representatives were delivered.
Unification of Italy
The unification of Italy was greatly aided by Giuseppe Mazzini. To further his objectives, he established a covert organization in Marseilles named “Young Italy.” He thought that Italy needed to be united into a single republic because it could not remain to be a patchwork of small states. Mazzini attempted to develop a cogent plan for the united Italian Republic during the 1830s. The task of uniting Italy fell to Sardinia-Piedmont under its king Emmanuel II after uprisings in 1831 and 1848 were unsuccessful.
Sardinia-Piedmont under Chief Minister Cavour was able to defeat the Austrian armies in 1859. Garibaldi himself joined the battle. With the aid of the local people, they marched into South Italy and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1860 and expelled the Spanish occupants. Victor Emmanuel II was crowned king of United Italy in 1861.
Unification of Germany
Germany was split up into several states in the 18th century. During the Napoleonic wars, some of these states lost their existence. Germany still had 39 sovereign states at the end of the war. The most powerful country was Prussia, which was ruled by powerful landlords known as Junkers.
- The middle-class Germans who had attempted to merge the many German federation regions into one nation-state ruled by an elected Parliament were rife with nationalist sentiments.
- Many political organizations gathered in May 1848 to vote for an all-German National Assembly. At a meeting of their representatives in Frankfurt, the Frankfurt Assembly advocated that Germany be united as a constitutional monarchy with the King of Prussia serving as the emperor.
- The liberal project of nation-building was suppressed by a coalition of the monarchy, the military, and the “Junkers” after the King of Prussia rejected the offer.
- Later, Prussia led the effort to unite Germany under its Chief Minister Otto Von Bismarck. The Prussian army and the bureaucracy assisted Bismarck in carrying out this procedure. Over a span of seven years, he engaged in three wars with Denmark, Austria, and France. Prussia triumphed in each of these conflicts, and its win over France resulted in the completion of the unification process.
- As a result, on January 18, 1871, a gathering in the Palace of Versailles that included princes of German States, army representatives, significant Prussian ministers, and Bismarck declared Kaiser William of Prussia to be the new German Emperor.
Visualizing the Nation
Artists portrayed nations as female figures and as people in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Female characters from the French Revolution represent concepts like Liberty, Justice, and the Republic. Justice is portrayed as a blindfolded woman with a set of weighing scales, whereas Liberty is symbolized by a crimson bonnet or a broken chain.
Nationalism and Imperialism
- Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Slovenia were all part of the modern Balkans.
- Romantic nationalism made this region volatile, thus major European powers fought for control of it.
- As a result, the First World War began, which was a series of wars.
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